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GRAHAM, Patrick of Kincardine and Dundaff, Sir
(About 1340-)
(About 1355-)
STEWART, David Earl Palatine of Strathearn and Caithness, Prince of Scots
LINDSAY, Daughter
(About 1357-)
GRAHAM, Patrick Earl of Strathearn, jure uxoris, Sir
(About 1385-1413)
STEWART, Euphemia Countess Palatine of Strathearn, suo jure
(About 1385-After 1434)
GRAHAM, Elizabeth
(About 1403-)


Family Links

1. LYON, John of Glamis, Sir

GRAHAM, Elizabeth 1

  • Born: About 1403
  • Marriage (1): LYON, John of Glamis, Sir 1

   User ID: V480.

  Research Notes:


Elizabeth Graham, it is consistently stated, was the daughter of Euphemia Stewart, Countess of Strathearn and her husband Patrick Graham. Sources or authorities rarely provide dates and references to demonstrate this in more exact terms, and one of the results of this is that the birth date of Patrick Lyon, Lord of Glamis is put as early as 1402. Some notes are offered here to clarify why this date is not acceptable.

Patrick Graham and Euphemia Stewart are held to have married between 1401 and 1406. On 19 June 1406 Patrick is named in a charter of sale as "earl palatine of Strathern", whereas in March 1401 "Eufemia Stewart, Countess Palatine of Stratheryne" acted on her own behalf, presumably because her marriage had not yet occurred. Thus, her daughter, Elizabeth Graham's year of birth must be after 1401.

Sir John Lyon and Johanna or Jean Stewart, daughter of King Robert II, married secretly "between 27 June and 4 October 1376", and this marriage was publicly acknowledged by the king in May 1378. Their only child, John Lyon, was born by 18 October 1388, and probably much earlier, when the king ordered a protection order concerning him. He was knighted before 1404. This latter Sir John Lyon, son of the princess and grandson of the king, married Elizabeth Graham. Sir John Lyon and Elizabeth Graham had a son, Patrick, 1st Lord Glamis. Thus the date of birth of Sir John Lyon allows for a birth date of his son Patrick quite soon after 1400, but the birth year of John's wife, Elizabeth Graham does not.

"On 24 March 1423-24 Sir John Lyon issued letters patent, dated from Glamis, declaring that Patrick, his son and heir, was to remain a hostage in England for the ransom of King James I. On 9 November 1427 Patrick was exchanged for David, Lord of Lesly." (S.P.v.8, p.270) The word 'hostage' might be replaced by 'surety' or 'guarantee', though the reality might have been very similar whatever the word used.

The question then arises: if Elizabeth Graham, mother of Patrick, was born after 1401, and Patrick was to remain as a hostage in England in March 1423-24, when was Patrick born?

Daničle Cybulskie reminds us:

"Boys as young as seven began training for knighthood with wooden swords, bows, and small horses or ponies..."

The question that follows might then be: were boys of around seven years of age, from noble families, also offered as guarantees of a king's ransom? John Giebfried cites the example, from the 13th century, of five year old Philip of Courtenay who was given, by his parents Baldwin II and Marie de Brienne, as collateral to cover a loan. Giebfried also reminds us of the , made by writer Adam de Kosto, that hostage-ship was not compulsion by a contract:

"A hostage was a form of surety, a person (potentially) deprived of liberty by a second party in order to guarantee an understanding by a third person."

That is to say the 'hostage' was not 'captive', but given as part of an agreement.

It may be the modern discomfort with the image of a young child as 'hostage' that leads researchers to believe that Patrick of Glamis 'must have' been born about 1402.

If Patrick was not born between 1416 and 1422, then we must ask whether Elizabeth Graham could actually have been the daughter of Sir Patrick Graham and his wife Countess Euphemia Stewart. 2 3 4 5 6

Elizabeth married Sir John LYON of Glamis, son of Sir John LYON of Glamis, Chamberlain of Scotland and Jean STEWART.1 (Sir John LYON of Glamis was born about 1380,1 died in 1435 1 and was buried in 1435 in Scone Abbey, Perthshire, Scotland 1.)

  Marriage Notes:

"Elizabeth (or Anna), married to her first cousin once removed, Sir John Lyon." (page 260)

"He (Sir John Lyon) married his first cousin once removed, Elizabeth Graham, youngest daughter of Euphemia, Countess Palatine of Strathern, and her husband, Sir Patrick Graham of Dundaff and Kincardine. The common ancestor was King
Robert II., the bridegroom being a grandson of that monarch and the bride a great-granddaughter. By her he had issue..." (page 270)

from Scots Peerage



1 e-books, The Scots Peerage ed. Sir James Balfour Paul vol. 8 (1911).

2 National Records of Scotland, GD220 Papers of the Graham Family, Dukes of Montrose (Montrose Muniments) 12th century-20th century GD220/1 Title deeds and other writs of James, Duke of Montrose and his predecessors c1165-mid 18th century GD220/1/A/1/6/8.

3 National Records of Scotland, GD22 Papers of the Cunninghame Graham Family of Ardoch, Dunbartonshire 1400-1892 GD22/2 Papers of the Cunninghame Graham Family of Ardoch including Legal and Financial documents, Letters and Personal papers, Title deeds and Estate papers GD22/2/1.

4 e-books, The Scots Peerage ed. Sir James Balfour Paul vol. 8 (1911) Lyon, Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne.

5 Internet Site, Childhood in the Middle Ages by Daničle Cybulskie.

6 Internet Site, Mortgaging Medieval Children by John Giebfried.

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